Every month when your salary is credited then you keep some part of that salary as savings. You keep some money for your later use, maybe for emergency or if you want to buy the house, or car and you save for that. So what are the ways to save? One simple way is that you keep your salary in the bank and it gets collected. It’s a very bad way because such money loses its value. Inflation is increasing in our country and due to that, the price of commodities is increasing too. So, the value of your money keeps decreasing every year by 4-5% according to the inflation rate. People invest the money so that they don’t lose their value by kept just lying in a savings account. There are different places to invest. Our country has mainly four places for investment:
- Savings A/c,
- FD or Fixed Deposit,
- Gold or jewellery – People buy gold or jewellery with their money,
- Real estate – People buy properties, or land, or house.
Some people who want to take more risk also invest in the stock market which is another way to invest your money. Every Investment has three things, Return, Risk, and Time. Return means how much percent of profit are you earning through the investment, this is normally seen in percentage. If our inflation rate is 4% then you should see that your profit return is more than at least 4% Otherwise there is no point of investment if you have put your money and the value didn’t increase because the inflation rate is also increasing risk means how risky it is to invest, what is the chance of losing all your money in that investment. What is the chance of going in loss after investing there? and time means for how long are you investing. So the basic risk here is that if the time is more, the risk is more then the returns will also be more. If you want more return percentage on your investment then you will have to take more risk and should invest for a longer period saving accounts has the minimum risk and there is no restriction too. You can save or take the money out at any time.
But the return we get here is also very less, only 4% whereas our inflation rate in the last few years has been 4-5%. Fixed deposit is also a less risky option but it has a time limit before that we can’t take the money out. hence the return is also a bit more, somewhat 7-8%. Gold and jewellery these days have a significant risk, their prices fluctuate a lot. If you are going to see the history then you will know that until 2012 the prices were consistently increasing you would have invested prior to 2012 then you would have got a good return here. But after 2012 there have been a lot of ups and down but they have maintained a level, hence there’s not a much profit. Investment in the properties has low to moderate risk. I would say you can see India’s housing prices in the last few years. It has come up and down a lot. In the quarter of March 2011, it has touched the return rates of 30% and in March 2018 latest quarter then it gives just 5% return rates. One of the disadvantages of investing in housing is that it needs a lot of capital, you need to have lacs and crores of rupees to invest. So this is a disadvantage. You might have heard about stock market friends, you can get a lot of returns here but also loss. The risk of investing in the stock market depends on the stock where you are investing. You need to have a good knowledge of the performances of the stock and how does the stock market work basically, you shouldn’t be investing here if you don’t have this knowledge. So these are few main types of investments that I have told you but there are some other types too like Government bonds, corporate bonds, we have cryptocurrency these days, people also invest in bitcoins general well-known advice is that friends you should never invest your money only at one place. You should invest at different places so that if there’s any crash then you will not have to bear the overall loss. It’s very little chance of everything crashing altogether like, gold, properties, and even the stock market as this happens rarely. Chances are that if one thing crashes then you can get profit from the other. This is called diversification, you have to invest at different places.
What are mutual funds? How to invest in it?
Mutual funds are a special kind of investment through which you can invest in different types together. You can do a diversified investment by investing in one place. Asset Management Company starts mutual funds. Basically, you give your money to Asset Management Company and many people like you do so, that company invests all the money collectively at different places. They have appointed experts and with their suggestion, they invest the money. They invest money at different places and the return rate they get collectively from these different places out of that some small percent of 1-2% is kept as a profit by the Asset company and the rest you get back as per that return rate. HDFC, HSBC, ICICI, Aditya Birla, Reliance, TATA, are the few examples of companies and banks that have started their own asset management company. All the companies start different kinds of mutual funds in large numbers.
For example, ICICI has started more than 1200 mutual funds. So how risky are your mutual funds and what is the return depends on the mutual funds that you are investing in? Mutual funds can give a return rate of 4% and also of more than 30% too. It can be of zero risks and also of high risk Because all this depends on where the asset management company is investing your money. If that company is investing in stocks then it will be riskier and you will get more returns and if it’s investing in government bonds then it will be less risky. Different types of Mutual funds depend on the basis of the investment done by AMC people. We can divide this into three categories: Equity mutual funds, Debt Mutual Funds, and Hybrid Mutual funds Equity.
- Mutual Funds: Your money will be invested in the stock market. So naturally in this type of Mutual funds generally the risk is more and also the return. In the stock market on which kind of company are you investing, if it’s a big company then it’s called Large Cap Equity Funds. If it’s a small company then it’s called a Small-cap and in the same way Mid Cap equity Funds. Big company doesn’t have many risks as compared to the smaller ones but big companies won’t have growth rate as high as it can be for the smaller companies. So risk and return both are less in the big companies. ICICI prudential blue-chip fund is an example of a large-cap equity fund. If you invest here for a year then after a year your expected return is 11.3% but if you invest for 5 years then your expected return can be 19.7%. As I’ve told you in the beginning, the more time you invest in, the more return you can expect. Here we have a very useful smartphone app. It’s called GROWW. This gives information about mutual funds, here you have to set every month what amount do you want to invest, for how long and you will get the expected returns. This app works by checking the history of the mutual funds. That prior to today in the last 5-10 years what has been the performance of the mutual funds, what’s the growth and it gives you the number based on its average growth. Just I gave the example of the ICICI that you will get a 19.7% return in 5 years, this is an expected return rate calculated by this app. based on the history of these mutual funds. it’s a very good thing to calculate the expected returns of the mutual funds. But one thing keeps in mind friends that this is an expected return, not a guaranteed return, it still depends on the market since the mutual fund has given such a performance in history that doesn’t mean that will perform the same way in the future. It still depends on the stock market so it will have risk, especially because it’s an equity mutual fund and investment is on the stock market. So don’t just look at the returns rate and invest, if you scroll down then you will see the pros and cons too. The pros are that the risk is lower as compared to the benchmark that means among all the other Large-cap Equity funds, the benchmark of the risk of this particular fund is less. So this is a good point here that compared to the other ones this has less risk. Another point is the lower expense ratio, if you scroll down further and click on info then you will see this has 1.16%. Expense ration Friends is that percentage which is the part taken by the asset management company as their profit.
Basically the commission for investing on your behalf. So this is lower as compared to the others which is again a good comparison. I look at the more pros then you will see that its returns are more than the benchmarks in 1 yr, 3 years, 5 years. In some mutual funds, they give one year 1 return more than the benchmark and less in 3 or 5 years which means it’s better for the short term. Look at the pros and cons and decide what is better for the short term and other things can also be compared. In cons, it says that asset under management, that means they have a total value of the money this company has invested at different places has crossed 15000 crores. So it happens that if the value crosses a particular point then the returns rate gets decreasing slowly because the value of the money is so much that taking returns is difficult and this you can see yourself, I’ve shared the link of this app (GROWW).
So let’s get back to the different types of equity funds. The next type is Diversifies equity funds here the investment is done in the large, medium, and small-cap or it’s done in different companies. The next type is the Equity Linked Saving scheme that is ELSS, this is a special type of Equity fund where you can save your tax. You can save the tax on its profit. The fund manager purposely invests in such places where there’s a high return and also has high risk. IDFC Tax advantage is an example of ELSS funds with the expected returns of 11.3% within a year. If you scroll down and click on other plans and details then you will get the details of tax too that how much can you save and much you will have to pay. This detail you can see for all the mutual funds if you scroll down and click then you will know the amount of tax that you will have to pay. The next type is Sector Mutual Funds, here specifically such companies are invested on which belongs to a big sector like Agriculture sector. All the companies which are under the agriculture sector, they are invested on. A logistic or transport sector, so there. One example of this is UTI transportation and logistics funds. So the investment is done in that sector these funds are riskier since all the investment is done in one sector so if the sector is going down everything depends on that. The last type of equity fund that I would want to tell you is the Index fund. Index Funds are passively Managed funds that are no agent of AMC is looking at where to invest the money here these are passively managed that is according to the market’s rate’s up and downs they too go up and down looking at the price of Sensex and Nifty it varies. Now let’s look at the second category of the mutual fund’s friends, that is Debt Mutual Funds these are those mutual funds that are invested in the debt instruments. Debts instruments are bonds, debenture, certificates of deposits now these things are exactly what you can read for yourselves if I keep telling you all this then it will go longer, I will tell you what is bonds. Sometimes if the Government needs money and it’s not getting that through the budget then the government borrows money from the people and takes loans from the people. It is called bonds you can invest here, give to the government and the government will return you the money after a fixed interest. Now debt mutual funds are of various kinds, let’s first talk about liquid funds. Liquid funds are those mutual funds that can be easily and quickly converted into cash. Liquid means that actually, It’s not the liquid to drink.
In economics, the liquid is something that can be easily converted into cash. So this thing can be converted into cash within a day or two. But it has a very low risk, such low that you can basically consider this as an alternative to a savings account. Asset liquid fund is one such example where you will get a return of 7.1% in a year. Here you can see in the graph how consistent is its growth so this can show how less is the risk here. Since the last 5 years, it’s increasing slowly with this percentage. The next type is Gilt Funds, these are those funds where Investments are done on the Government issued bonds. So technically it has zero risks because it’s never possible for the Government to not return your money. Mostly the interest rate can fluctuate.
The next type is Fixed Maturity plans and this can be considered as an alternative to Fixed deposits, it has very low risk just like FD and it is done for a fixed time. For a specific time investment is done here and you can’t take the money before that. So these are the few main types of Debt funds there are more like Junk Bond scheme and the third category of mutual funds is Hybrid Mutual Funds, basically, it’s a mixture of debt and equity mutual funds. Some people want to invest in the stock market but don’t want to invest all the money there and also invest some amount in the Debt instruments. So hybrid mutual funds are for the most of the money is invested in a Debt fund then it will be called as the Balanced savings Funds. Approximately the ratio is 70:30 that means 705 of your money is at the low-risk debt funds and 30% is in the equity funds and if it’s the other way, 70% is in the equity funds at the higher risk, then it is called a balanced advantage fund and Hybrid mutual funds to have different types. So, friends, I feel I have given a lot of information and knowledge to you.
Now I leave it to you, go ahead and research yourself on further kinds of mutual funds and which one is better for you. The biggest advantage of mutual funds in comparison to other investment is that it is already diversified. Your risk gets very low due to diversification because you are not investing in one place so if one thing crashes it won’t affect your money. So in comparison to the stock market, gold, real estate, mutual funds are less risky however the exact risk depends on the mutual fund that you are investing in. One more good advantage is that it is affordable, you don’t have to invest a big amount altogether you can use SIP and invest a small amount every month and all the investment of the mutual funds, friends it’s done by a professional expert or a fund manager who decided where to invest and where to not. This you don’t need to. So it’s again a big advantage that an expert is working for you. But friends this mutual fund has a disadvantage too. If you are giving it to an unknown person, you don’t know how it’s going to perform. however, he is an expert but you can’t trust 100% that an expert will be right all the time. But the biggest disadvantage that used to be for the mutual funds earlier is that the agents used to take a lot of commissions for investing in the mutual funds. They say that gives us the money we will invest for you in the mutual funds and deduct a lot of commissions for themselves now disadvantage is not possible friends due to the smartphone apps who can do this for you Like this GROWW app where there is no hidden charges and doesn’t deduct it’s hidden charges, I’m talking specifically about this as I have not seen the other apps and here there no commission or charges getting deducted, just the asset management company who takes their part and that is going to be there if you invest in any mutual funds.
So I hope friends that you must have got a lot to learn so share this with your friends and family and spread the knowledge with them too and teach them about the mutual fund’s investment too.